How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (2022)

What are the different types of programming languages?

Programming languages for websites fall into two major categories, namely Frontend and backend. The language use for program a webpage for the Frontend are HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

Frontend Languages include:

  • HyperText Markup Language (HTML) – This language is used to format web pages and organize elements on a web page. It is made up of opening and closing tags that each has a specific task. For example, the title tag is used to write the web page’s title in the address bar.
  • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) – As the name suggests, CSS is used to style web pages. For example, you can use CSS to define the website font, font size, colors, etc. CSS can be written in one file and reused over and over on numerous elements on a webpage.
  • JavaScript (JS) – JavaScript is used to make websites more interactive. Let us say you have created a button, and you want it to display a message when it is clicked. You can use JavaScript to write that functionality.

Backend languages

The backend can be coded in any language that supports web development. You can use JavaScript on the server-side using NodeJS, Python, Ruby, or PHP. One of the most commonly used program for web site development is PHP. In this guide, we will focus on PHP as the scripting language.

PHP:

PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. Unlike frontend technologies which execute in the web browser, PHP is executed on the webserver. It is commonly used to perform activities such as register users, authenticate users, send emails, etc.

In this tutorial you will learn:

  • What are the different types of programming languages?
  • How to Code a Website – Complete Beginner’s Guide
  • The basic concept of HTML
  • Understand HTML Document Structure.
  • The role of HTML and CSS
  • Understanding Common HTML Terms
  • Understanding Common CSS Terms
  • HTML Editors
  • Building Your First Web Page
  • Creating from Scratch Vs. using a Content Management System
  • Using a Framework (PHP MVC Framework)
  • Creating a website using a Content Management System (WordPress)
  • WordPress Alternatives

How to Code a Website – Complete Beginner’s Guide

In this comprehensive guide, we will teach you how to make a website from scratch and write all the code yourself, or you can use an existing platform such as WordPress or Joomla, etc.

We will cover the following topics in this complete guide.

  • Creating from scratch Vs. using a Content Management System
  • Creating a website from scratch using a framework (PHP MVC Framework)
  • Creating a website using a Content Management System (WordPress)

The basic concept of HTML

An HTML document is a text file that contains HTML tags and elements and usually ends with a .html file extension.

HTML can also be embedded in other scripting language file extensions such as *.php, *.jsp or *.asp.

Web browsers parse HTML documents to display Web pages. You can view the HTML that makes up the webpage in the web browser.

Here, are steps helps you create a website:

Step 1) Right-click on the web page to display the pop-up menu.

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (1)

Step 2) Select View page source.

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (2)

Step 3) The HTML code will be displayed in plain text, and you can see the HTML tags and elements that make up the page.

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You may also see some CSS and JavaScript either embedded or included as separate external files.

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (3)

The function of the web browser is to translate the HTML document into a human-readable format. The browser also processes the JavaScript that is included within the web page.

Understand HTML Document Structure.

Suppose you have created a word document before. In that case, understanding the structure of an HTML document will be quite easy for you. In a word document, you will have the document title, clickable table of contents, the content sections formatted differently, and the footer. An HTML document’s structure is more or less the same as the word document that we just described.

All HTML documents are enclosed in the HTML tag. Within the HTML tag, you will have other tags such as head and body. The header tag contains other tags, such as the title for displaying the page title. It also includes links to external files for CSS styles, JavaScript, and metadata. The body tag contains the elements that make up the webpage. The elements within the body tag can be div, tables, lists, etc.

<!doctype html><html lang="en"><head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <title>How to create a website for beginners</title> <meta name="description" content="My First Webpage created using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and PHP"> <meta name="author" content="Guru99"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/styles.css?v=1.0"></head><body> <h3>Welcome to my first webpage</h3></body></html>

Explanation:

  • <!doctype html> defines the document type which is HTML
  • <html lang=”en”>… </html> defines the HTML tag with a language attribute which specifies the website language.
  • In this simple example, the website language is English. Within the open and closing HTML tag, we will have tags such as head and body, which in turn enclose other tags and elements.
  • <head>… </head> defines the head tag that contains metadata within it.
  • <body>…</body> defines the body which contains the content of the website.

Get to Know CSS Selectors

CSS Selectors select elements on the webpage that you want to format based on the defined CSS rules.

CSS Selectors are categorized into five major categories, namely:

  • Simple selectors: These selectorsare used to select elements based on attributes such as id, name, or class.
  • CSS Combinator: Just like the name suggests, this type of selector selects an element based on a combination of related elements. For example, you can use this method to select only paragraph elements that are within div elements.
  • CSS Pseudo-classes: These selectors work based on the state of an element. For example, hover over a hyperlink. You can change its background color to show the user where they are currently pointed. So when the user moves the mouse away from the hyperlink, the formatting is automatically removed.
  • CSS Pseudo-elements: This selector is used to select specific parts from an element. For example, you can use a pseudo-element selector to enlarge the first letter of the first word in each paragraph and leave the other letters untouched.
  • CSS Attribute: This selector works based on the attributes applied to the elements or specific attribute values.For example, you can use a CSS attribute selector to format all HTML buttons to the green background color that contains the attribute value “submit.”This will apply a green background color to the buttons that have the attribute value set to submit.

Put Together a CSS Stylesheet

This section will create a simple CSS style document that performs simple styling by defining the following styling rules.

  • Center text based on a class center: This rule will center the text and change the text color to red.
  • Format text based on element id: We will create a styling rule for the id title that will change the color to orange, make the font-weight bold and change the text case to uppercase.
  • Format text based on heading element number 2: This rule will set the text color of a heading to blue and set the font size of 60 pixels.

The following code defines a CSS document with the above rules.

.center { text-align: center; color: red;}#title { color: orange; text-transform: uppercase; font-weight: bold;}h2 { font-size: 60px; color: blue;}

Explains:

  • .center {…} – defines a class rule center that aligns the text on the center and changes the font color.
  • #title {…} – defines a title rule that changes the font color, transforms all the letters to upper case, and changes the font-weight to bold.
  • h2 {…} – defines rules that will apply to all h3 elements. The font size will be set to 60 pixels, and the font color will be updated to blue.

Download/Install Bootstrap

Bootstrap is a CSS framework that comes with a good number of styles that you can start using right away. It contains styles for layouts and formatting elements.

You can write your CSS styles that customize the default settings of the bootstrap CSS framework. For that, you can either download Bootstrap directly from the official website, or you can include it in your HTML document from the content delivery network (CDN).

Alternatively, you can use a package management tool such as Node Package Manager (NPM) to install Bootstrap, but this is for advanced web developers. To download Bootstrap, you can click this link here and use it in your project just like any other CSS and JavaScript file.

We will learn how to use it in the section below when we look at creating your first web page.

The role of HTML and CSS

The role of HTML is to provide structure to WebPages. Web browsers use this structure to display presentable content to the users. Secondly, search engine spiders use HTML structure to navigate the webpage and index it.

The role of CSS is to provide styling to the content so that it is visually appealing to the users.

Understanding Common HTML Terms

Let us now look at some of the common HTML terms you should be familiar with as a web developer.

S/NTermDescription
1ElementElements are keywords that are used to define specific structures and content of the web page. For example, the element H3 is used to define a heading structure. Other examples of elements include paragraphs (p), anchors (a), and containers (div), etc.
2TagTags are labels that mark the beginning and end of an element. Tags include element keywords in angle brackets. For example, <p>Paragraph</p> is a paragraph tag where <p> is the opening tag and </p> is the closing tag.
3AttributeAttributes are properties of elements that provide supplementary information. For example, we can use the id attribute to give a unique name to an element. The id can be used in CSS or JavaScript.
4HyperlinkA hyperlink is a clickable link that opens a new webpage. You can create it by using the anchor element.
5HeadThe head tag contains information hidden from the user but useful to the web browser and search engines.
6BodyThe body tag contains information that is visible to the user in the web browser.
7FooterThe footer tag contains information that is displayed in the footer section of the webpage.
8CommentComments are used to document and explain the HTML code, and they are ignored by the browser when parsing the HTML document.
9DivDiv is a container element that is used to create layouts.
10HeadingThe heading tag is used to create HTML headings.
11Line BreakThis element is used to create a new line break.
12LinksLinks are used to including other files such as external CSS files in the HTML documents.
13MetadataThe metadata tag provides supplementary information about the web page that is most useful to search engine bots.
14ListThe list tag is used to create a list. The list can either be ordered or unordered.
15ParagraphThe paragraph element is used to display text data in paragraph format
16TableThis element is used to create a table
17TitleJust like the title suggests, it is used to set the title of the web page.
18FormThe form tag is used to create forms that we can use to get input from the users.
19ScriptThe script tag links to an external JavaScript or inline JavaScript code within the HTML document.
20AJAXAJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. It is a technology used to update certain parts of the web page without reloading the entire page.

Understanding Common CSS Terms

The following are some of the common CSS terms that you must be familiar with.

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S/NTermDescription
1SelectorThis refers to the CSS responsible for selecting the HTML document elements that we wish to format.
2PropertiesProperties refer to the attribute of the element that we wish to set a value for.
3ValuesJust like the name suggests, we assign the value to the property for styling purposes.
4CommentComments are used to document and explain the CSS code
5Rule SetRefers to a complete section of CSS code made up of the selector, declaration bracket, properties, and respective values.
6DeclarationThis refers to a single line of code within the CSS document
7Declaration BlockThis refers to the section of the CSS that defines the styling rules. It is enclosed between the curly brackets.
8KeywordThis is a reserved word that has a special meaning in CSS. For example, the word auto has a special meaning, therefore, is a keyword
9Attribute SelectorThe selector selects an element based on the attribute value.
10Universal SelectorThis selector is used to match any elements within the given context. The context is usually applied on a parent element like a list so that all items within the list can inherit the styling from the parent
11Id SelectorThis selector makes a selection based on the id of the element.
12Class SelectorThis selector makes a selection based on the class attribute value or values.
13Element Type SelectorThis selector is based on the type of element used in the HTML document.

HTML Editors

HTML editor is a program that is used to write and edit HTML code. You can use any text editor to write HTML code, but HTML editors come with many built-in features that make it easy to write code.

Let us look at some of the popular choices:

Visual Studio Code:

Visual Studio Code is a cross-platform code editor developed by Microsoft. You can use Visual Studio Code to edit code for many languages, including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and PHP. Visual Studio Code is free and runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux.

Sublime Text:

Sublime Text is a cross-platform code editor that can also be used to write and edit HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and PHP code. It is a commercial product, and you need to purchase it. You can also use it for free in unregistered mode.

Notepad++

Notepad++ is a lightweight code editor that supports many languages too. Unlike Visual Studio Code and Sublime Text, Notepad++ is not cross-platform. It only works on the Microsoft Windows platform.

NetBeans IDE

NetBeans is an integrated development environment (IDE) that offers more features than a regular code editor. NetBeans is free and cross-platform.

Building Your First Web Page

Let us now create a simple web page. Here we have created a simple HTML document and apply some styling using Bootstrap CSS. We will also have a clickable button that will display a simple message using JavaScript.

Here, are steps helps you to learn how to make a website from scratch:

Step 1) Open your favorite text editor.

Here, we open notepad.

Step 2) Create a new file.

named index.html.

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (4)

Step 3) Add the following code,

into the file index.html.

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (5)

<!doctype html><html lang="en"><head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <link href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/bootstrap@5.0.0-beta1/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet" integrity="sha384-giJF6kkoqNQ00vy+HMDP7azOuL0xtbfIcaT9wjKHr8RbDVddVHyTfAAsrekwKmP1" crossorigin="anonymous"> <title>My First Web Page</title> <script> function displayMessage() { document.getElementById("message").innerHTML = "Greetings from JavaScript!"; } </script></head><body> <div class="container"> <h1>My Web App!</h1> <p id="message">Your message will appear here.</p> <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary" onclick="displayMessage()">Click Me!</button> </div></body></html>

Explanation:

  • <!doctype html> defines the document type.
  • <head>… </head> defines the head tag that contains the metadata that is invisible to the users.
  • The head also contains a script tag that contains JavaScript code that displays a greeting message.
  • We are also loading Bootstrap CSS from a CDN network.
  • <body>… </body> defines our page’s content: a heading, paragraph, and a button that applies some styling from Bootstrap CSS.

Creating from Scratch Vs. using a Content Management System

Creating a website from scratch requires skills and appropriate knowledge. It also takes up more time and can also cost a lot of money.

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On the other hand, you do not need to be a skilled programmer to create your website using a Content Management System such as WordPress. Content Management Systems are similar to applications like Microsoft Word.

With a Content Management System, you focus on creating pages, writing content, and publishing the content, just like creating documents in words and printing them to a printer.

The following table compares the two popular methods of creating websites.

S/NPro/ConCreating from ScratchUsing a Content Management System
1TimeRequires a lot of time.Takes little time. It can be created in less than 24 hours.
2CostIt can be expensive to hire a skilled programmer.You can do it yourself or hire someone to create it for you.
4SkillsRequires an experienced and skilled programmerRequires fewer skills. You need to be computer literate to do it.
5SecurityHackers cannot easily find weaknesses in the code to exploit.Hackers can easily find the weakness in the code and exploit them. Regular updates are important for security reasons.
6SpeedTend to be faster because only the features that are needed are loaded at runtime.Tend to be slower because the Content Management System comes as a general-purpose solution that may load features that you do not necessarily need.
7MaintenanceEasy to maintain because updates are only done when neededRequire more work as you have to make regular updates to the CMS because of security reasons.
8Search Engine Optimization (S.E.O)Requires more work, and the programmer needs to be reminded because most programmers are not S.E.O expertsMost Content Management Systems come with S.E.O tools out of the box. Extra features can easily be added using plugins.

Using a Framework (PHP MVC Framework)

In this section, we will look at how we can create our website from scratch. Every website must use frontend technologies such as HyperText Markup Language (HTML), JavaScript, and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

The backend has more options for programming languages. You can use PHP, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, etc. PHP is one of the most common ones. We will talk about PHP technologies in this section.

You can use PHP as it is a slow process, so even programmers who create websites from scratch need to use a development framework. The most popular is Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework. Examples of PHP MVC frameworks include Laravel, CodeIgniter, Cake PHP, Symfony, etc.

MVC frameworks provide the following features:

  • Built-in database connectivity with libraries: This saves you the time to write code to connect to the database securely to write and retrieve data.
  • Built-in authentication modules: This saves you the time to write the code that will require the users to log in and out of the site if needed.
  • Structured code: MVC design pattern separates the business logic from the presentation. This makes it easy to have a programmer who can work on the back end and a web designer who works on the Front end development.
  • Packages: These are collections of libraries that perform awfully specific tasks. For example, you can use or download a package to add features such as;
    • Adding Disqus commenting feature to your site
    • Calling an API
    • Integrating a payment gateway.

You can use MVC frameworks to speed up development time. You can also use HTML templates to speed up the Frontend’s development by using open-source HTML templates. You can also buy a commercial HTML template then customize it according to your requirements. Some HTML template makers even create specific MVC framework HTML templates.

For example, you can purchase an HTML template that uses a blade template, a template engine built-in into the Laravel MVC framework.

Creating a website using a Content Management System (WordPress)

In this section, we will look at how you can create a website using WordPress:

Downloading WordPress

You can download WordPress from the official website and run it on your local computer if you have a web server and PHP installed. However, if you already have a hosting account, you can install WordPress directly from your cPanel.

Getting Started with WordPress

Once you have installed WordPress, you can start creating your website.

Web hosting:

Before you get started, you need to have a domain name and web hosting account. The web hosting account should have PHP installed and MySQL as the database engine. You can take the service of Bluehost, Godaddy, or you can host with WP Engine, which specializes in providing managed WordPress hosting.

Installing:

Most web hosting providers have special scripts in the administrative panel that allow you to install WordPress. If your hosting provider uses cPanel, then you should be able to install WordPress by clicking on the WordPress icon like shown in the image below:

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (6)

Once you select the above option, you will be presented with Window’s following to complete the installation.

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How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (7)

Settings:

The settings section allows you to configure things like site name, URL permanent links, time zone, if anyone can register on your site, etc.

Template:

Templates allow us to see how our website looks like. WordPress comes with free built-in templates that you can use right away. You can also download templates created by others. Apart from free templates, you can also purchase premium templates from marketplaces such as ThemeForest.

Plug-ins:

Plugins allow you to extend the functionality of WordPress. For example, you can use a plugin to enable your clients to pay you via PayPal from your website. You can also use plugins to force users to use secure connections (HTTPS) or generate site maps.

Website builders:

Website builders come with many features that make it easy to create websites using drag and drop methods. Website builders are usually installed as plugins and come with templates that you can use.

Let’s look at some of the most popular web builders:

Astra

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (8)

Astra is a fast, lightweight, and highly customizable WordPress theme. It comes with starter templates that you can use to quickly create your sites. It has both free and premium starter templates.

Elementor:

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (9)

Elementor is drag and drop website builder for WordPress that over 5 million users use. Elementor offers both free and premium features.

Beaver Builder:

How to Code a Website from Scratch! 5 Simple Steps (10)

Beaver Builder is an easy-to-use drag-and-drop website builder for WordPress that allows you to create professional-looking websites rapidly.

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WordPress Alternatives

WordPress is not the only Content Management System that you can use to build your website. You can also look at alternatives such as

  • Joomla: Joomla is an open-source content management system that can be used to publish content, discussion forums, e-commerce applications, etc. It uses PHP as the programming language and MySQL as the database engine.
  • Drupal: It is a web content management system that can create personal blogs, corporate websites, or knowledge management for business collaboration. Drupal is written in PHP and JavaScript.
  • MODX: It is an open-source content management system that is written in PHP. And uses MySQL as the database engine. It can be used on the web as well as the intranet.
  • Constant Contact: This is a website builder that provides drag and drop features. It can be used to create basic websites and e-commerce stores.

Summary:

  • Websites are created using computer code.
  • Computer code is human-readable instructions that tell the computer to perform a specific task.
  • Websites can be created either from scratch or using an existing platform such as WordPress.
  • Creating a website from scratch takes more time compared to creating using a platform.
  • Creating a website from scratch is more flexible compared to using an existing platform.
  • The programming languages used to create websites are HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and scripting languages for the backend, such as PHP, Python, Ruby, etc.
  • WordPress is a content management system that can be used to create websites very quickly.
  • WordPress supports plugins such as Astra, Elementor or, Beaver Builder, etc., to provide drag and drop website design features.
  • MVC frameworks such as Laravel or CodeIgniter can be used to speed up developing websites from scratch.

FAQs

How do you start a coded website? ›

Table of Contents hide
  1. Step 1: Start with the end goal in mind.
  2. Step 2: Choose an unforgettable URL.
  3. Step 3: Choose your hosting plan.
  4. Step 4: Drop a CMS on your website.
  5. Step 5: Customize the look to fit your brand.
  6. Step 6: Create goal-driven content & follow these tips.
  7. Step 7: Add these tools before launching.

How do you code a website in 5 minutes? ›

Let's Start:

So now Let's fire up VSCode, Create Index. html and let's begin. First let's go to https://tailwindcss.com/ and click on get started and then go to the end of the page and copy the Tailwind CSS CDN. Now come to VS Code, write the HTML boilerplate, and paste the CDN link into the head section.

How do I code a website in HTML? ›

Follow the steps below to create your first web page with Notepad or TextEdit.
  1. Step 1: Open Notepad (PC) Windows 8 or later: ...
  2. Step 1: Open TextEdit (Mac) Open Finder > Applications > TextEdit. ...
  3. Step 2: Write Some HTML. ...
  4. Step 3: Save the HTML Page. ...
  5. Step 4: View the HTML Page in Your Browser.

How easy learn HTML? ›

HTML is perhaps one of the easiest front-end programming languages to master. So if you want to learn HTML, then go for it! With patience and practice, you'll learn to make the most of this popular language.

Is it possible to learn HTML in 2 days? ›

So How Long Does It Take? Most programmers recommend 2-4 hours daily for newcomers to start learning HTML. Most new programmers can learn the basics of HTML within a week or two. However, daily practice is necessary to become proficient in the language and to understand its full potential.

How do I create a website with minutes? ›

Here's how to start building your website:
  1. Get organized.
  2. Choose a website template.
  3. Customize your website.
  4. Choose your domain.
  5. Optimize your website for search engines.
  6. Launch your website.

How long does it take to code a website? ›

Modern websites typically use multiple programming languages, including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and more. For a relatively simple website to be coded from scratch, an experienced programmer should expect to spend between four and six weeks of time ― roughly eight hours per day ― on the project.

What is the best website for coding? ›

Top websites for practicing your coding skills
  • Codewars. ...
  • CodinGame. ...
  • Geektastic. ...
  • HackerRank. ...
  • LeetCode. ...
  • Project Euler. ...
  • SPOJ. ...
  • TopCoder. TopCoder's community of designers, developers, data scientists, and competitive programmers build their skills, show their expertise, and earn money as they improve their coding abilities.
Apr 25, 2022

How hard is it to code a website? ›

In short, no. If you have coding skills you can create a website from scratch using just a code editor and HTML, CSS, and JS libraries like Bootstrap. However, this approach requires a lot of time, skill, and experience. You could also hire a web developer to build a website for you.

Is CSS coding hard? ›

Unlike a programming language that requires knowledge of loops, variables, and other concepts, CSS is pretty easy to pick up. Maybe it's because of this that it has gained the reputation of being simple. It is simple in the sense of “not complex”, but that doesn't mean it's easy.

Is Python hard to learn? ›

Python is widely considered among the easiest programming languages for beginners to learn. If you're interested in learning a programming language, Python is a good place to start. It's also one of the most widely used.

Is HTML easier than python? ›

For python you just have to learn its concepts and framework . Both are different language used for different purposes...but html is much easier than python..

How long will it take to learn C++? ›

If you're serious about this language, then your learning is never done. Developers can devote their entire career to C++ and still feel as though they have more to learn. With that said, if you put in the work, you can learn enough C++ in 1-2 years and still be a great developer.

How do I master HTML? ›

This is how to master HTML, CSS & JavaScript - YouTube

What is an example of website? ›

A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Examples of notable websites are Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Wikipedia.

Can I create a website for free? ›

To quickly and easily create a website that's truly free of cost, work with an online website builder like Wix, Weebly, Strikingly, SimpleSite, Webnode, Site123, Jimdo, and so on.

Is Go Daddy free? ›

GoDaddy Website Builder Plans and Pricing

Your free, mobile-friendly site comes with built-in marketing and 24/7 support. Keep it free forever, or upgrade to a paid plan for more business-building features.

How long does it take to code a website from scratch? ›

For a relatively simple website to be coded from scratch, an experienced programmer should expect to spend between four and six weeks of time ― roughly eight hours per day ― on the project.

Do web developers write code from scratch? ›

Web developers can build a website from scratch if they want more control, extremely high customization or if the website is very small. Developing a website from scratch offers a lot of advantages even though it can take a lot of time. There are many factors to consider when choosing how to develop a website.

Is it hard to make a website from scratch? ›

It's quite easy and feasible to make your own website if what you're doing is plopping in content into set layouts/themes with website builders like Squarespace, but if you want something more customized and exactly the way you want, it takes time to learn the platforms and technologies it takes to do that.

Is it better to code your own website? ›

Writing your own code helps you grow as a developer. All the challenges that you'll face and overcome in creating a website that is based mostly on your own efforts will help you become better at coding. It all adds up to more experience, and that means you become more efficient as a coder over time.

Can you build a website in a day? ›

It used to take months to build a website. But now with our innovative 1 Day® Website, the Bizzy Bizzy team can create a one-of-a-kind website for your startup in a fraction of the time.

How long does it learn to code a website? ›

Most coders agree that it takes three to six months to be comfortable with the basics of coding. But you can learn coding faster or slower depending on your preferred pace. Let's get into the specific skills you'll need to learn.

A strong online presence for your business is the first step in realizing your vision. Here’s a full guide on how to build a website from scratch.

While the process of creating a website may seem a bit daunting, you can actually create a customized website all on your own.. No matter what type of site you want to make, this complete guide on how to build a website from scratch will guide you through the process.. Using a website builder that includes What You See if What You Get (WYSIWYG) software, you don't need any code to create your site - it's already built into the interface.. You just need to choose your website template and develop a solid idea of what visual elements you want to include on your site.. If you’re creating a one-page website, don’t forget to add an anchor menu that will take visitors to the desired section of your scrolling site.. Either way, an important part of your menu is a clickable logo that leads visitors back to the homepage - or to the top of the page for one-page websites.. A professional website should include the following pages to best optimize the design:. Save yourself and your clients some time (and frustration) by including an FAQ page to provide answers to questions that may naturally come up as visitors browse your site.. You can also check out our article on the best fonts for websites for more detail on how to choose the best one for your site.. Search engine optimization, or SEO, is the practice of optimizing your site so your pages can rank higher on search engine result pages.. It’s because of this that Google established mobile-first indexing , a system in which the search engine predominantly determines website ranking based on mobile websites, not desktop.. If you want to have full control over breakpoints when creating your website from scratch, you can build your website using Editor X - an advanced creation platform from Wix, made exclusively for designers and agencies.

Go through the steps for creating and managing Django websites with minimal programming experience. Learn how to create a full-fledged end-user web sites from scratch using Django.

Django is an open source project that supports the implementation of the most popular packages and Python tools.. Django, based on the MVC (Model-View-Controller) paradigm, has a default database — SQLite (lightweight DB), has a graphical administrator interface by default, which makes Django a convenient tool for creating and managing websites with minimal programming experience.. To create the first Django project, we need to install the Django and related packages (for additional functionality).. Now you have installed Django and basic libraries to build your first Django project.. To get started with creating the first Django website project, we need to create a new folder, for example, “WEB”, then open terminal or command line and type:. The first project is created, now we need to create and connect the first Django application that will be used with this project.. Now create the home.html file for the web page and put these files in the Web_AppTemps/Web_App folder and the style.css file for styling in the static/Web_App folder.. And create the Files folder in media/Web_App, if in the future we will download files and other media.. The file “settings.py” is the main file for configuring the Django project and additional applications.. Django gives you the ability to use additional packages and Python tools like numpy, scikit-learn and many other problems with compatibility with the Python programming language.

In today’s data-driven, digital-first business landscape, it has arguably never been more important for a business to have a web presence. A website is a quick and easy way for a business to expand its reach, develop its brand and keep pace with competitors.

Building a website from scratch, while intensive, is a great way to ensure your site is reflective of your company’s goals.. Helpful website development prerequisites may include coding in languages like JavaScript and HTML/CSS (for various design and usability factors), troubleshooting and debugging (to ensure your site is consistently efficient, up-to-date and free of crucial security flaws) and search engine optimization (or SEO — to effectively optimize and market your site so it is discoverable and competitive within Google’s search algorithm).. For instance, if you plan to use the site to build brand awareness and facilitate digital transactions, you might scheme a home page offering easy access to both featured online products and company updates as well as identity-based information (such as a comprehensive “About Us” section).. As in the previous step, this decision should be rooted in your needs and goals for the site — especially those related to site structure and usability.. From an SEO perspective, an effective domain name can make your site more discoverable within keyword searches and it can also make your site easier to promote via digital marketing campaigns.. As your site’s primary building blocks, these pages should be structured and ordered in a manner consistent with your intended user journey, and they should be both accessible and easy to navigate .. If you are using a website builder, it will likely feature the option to add, remove and customize pages within your broad site theme.. Since usability remains one of the greatest indicators of site success in 2021, your main considerations should be your site’s user interface (UI) and conveyed user experience (UX).. As for technical auditing, take stock of site performance metrics (such as page speed and multimedia playback), various SEO factors (like content optimization, organic keyword mentions and functional backlinks) and matters related to the site’s underlying code.. Many of these outlets allow users to directly link site URLs, syndicate site content and seamlessly guide followers to different site pages.. Other options include Google’s advertising and business features , which can help site owners market their properties via targeted ads and, if applicable, get related brick-and-mortar locations listed on Google Maps (with their corresponding website links).. As your site builds tenure online, your users may eventually become impatient or disengaged with stale, outdated content and poorly managed site usability factors (broken links, dysfunctional multimedia, etc.).

The backpropagation algorithm is used in the classical feed-forward artificial neural network. It is the technique still used to train large deep learning networks. In this tutorial, you will discover how to implement the backpropagation algorithm for a neural network from scratch with Python. After completing this tutorial, you will know: How to forward-propagate an input to calculate an output. How to back-propagate

from random import seed. from random import random. # Initialize a network. def initialize_network(n_inputs, n_hidden, n_outputs):. network = list(). hidden_layer = [{'weights':[random() for i in range(n_inputs + 1)]} for i in range(n_hidden)]. network.append(hidden_layer). output_layer = [{'weights':[random() for i in range(n_hidden + 1)]} for i in range(n_outputs)]. network.append(output_layer). return network. seed(1). network = initialize_network(2, 1, 2). for layer in network:. print(layer). # Forward propagate input to a network output. def forward_propagate(network, row):. inputs = row. for layer in network:. new_inputs = []. for neuron in layer:. activation = activate(neuron['weights'], inputs). neuron['output'] = transfer(activation). new_inputs.append(neuron['output']). inputs = new_inputs. return inputs. from math import exp. # Calculate neuron activation for an input. def activate(weights, inputs):. activation = weights[-1]. for i in range(len(weights)-1):. activation += weights[i] * inputs[i]. return activation. # Transfer neuron activation. def transfer(activation):. return 1.0 / (1.0 + exp(-activation)). # Forward propagate input to a network output. def forward_propagate(network, row):. inputs = row. for layer in network:. new_inputs = []. for neuron in layer:. activation = activate(neuron['weights'], inputs). neuron['output'] = transfer(activation). new_inputs.append(neuron['output']). inputs = new_inputs. return inputs. # test forward propagation. network = [[{'weights': [0.13436424411240122, 0.8474337369372327, 0.763774618976614]}],. [{'weights': [0.2550690257394217, 0.49543508709194095]}, {'weights': [0.4494910647887381, 0.651592972722763]}]]. row = [1, 0, None]. output = forward_propagate(network, row). print(output). You can see that the error signal for neurons in the hidden layer is accumulated from neurons in the output layer where the hidden neuron number j is also the index of the neuron’s weight in the output layer neuron[‘weights’][j] .. # Backpropagate error and store in neurons. def backward_propagate_error(network, expected):. for i in reversed(range(len(network))):. layer = network[i]. errors = list(). if i != len(network)-1:. for j in range(len(layer)):. error = 0.0. for neuron in network[i + 1]:. error += (neuron['weights'][j] * neuron['delta']). errors.append(error). else:. for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. errors.append(neuron['output'] - expected[j]). for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. neuron['delta'] = errors[j] * transfer_derivative(neuron['output']). # Calculate the derivative of an neuron output. def transfer_derivative(output):. return output * (1.0 - output). # Backpropagate error and store in neurons. def backward_propagate_error(network, expected):. for i in reversed(range(len(network))):. layer = network[i]. errors = list(). if i != len(network)-1:. for j in range(len(layer)):. error = 0.0. for neuron in network[i + 1]:. error += (neuron['weights'][j] * neuron['delta']). errors.append(error). else:. for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. errors.append(neuron['output'] - expected[j]). for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. neuron['delta'] = errors[j] * transfer_derivative(neuron['output']). # test backpropagation of error. network = [[{'output': 0.7105668883115941, 'weights': [0.13436424411240122, 0.8474337369372327, 0.763774618976614]}],. [{'output': 0.6213859615555266, 'weights': [0.2550690257394217, 0.49543508709194095]}, {'output': 0.6573693455986976, 'weights': [0.4494910647887381, 0.651592972722763]}]]. expected = [0, 1]. backward_propagate_error(network, expected). for layer in network:. print(layer). # Update network weights with error. def update_weights(network, row, l_rate):. for i in range(len(network)):. inputs = row[:-1]. if i != 0:. inputs = [neuron['output'] for neuron in network[i - 1]]. for neuron in network[i]:. for j in range(len(inputs)):. neuron['weights'][j] -= l_rate * neuron['delta'] * inputs[j]. neuron['weights'][-1] -= l_rate * neuron['delta']. # Train a network for a fixed number of epochs. def train_network(network, train, l_rate, n_epoch, n_outputs):. for epoch in range(n_epoch):. sum_error = 0. for row in train:. outputs = forward_propagate(network, row). expected = [0 for i in range(n_outputs)]. expected[row[-1]] = 1. sum_error += sum([(expected[i]-outputs[i])**2 for i in range(len(expected))]). backward_propagate_error(network, expected). update_weights(network, row, l_rate). print('>epoch=%d, lrate=%.3f, error=%.3f' % (epoch, l_rate, sum_error)). from math import exp. from random import seed. from random import random. # Initialize a network. def initialize_network(n_inputs, n_hidden, n_outputs):. network = list(). hidden_layer = [{'weights':[random() for i in range(n_inputs + 1)]} for i in range(n_hidden)]. network.append(hidden_layer). output_layer = [{'weights':[random() for i in range(n_hidden + 1)]} for i in range(n_outputs)]. network.append(output_layer). return network. # Calculate neuron activation for an input. def activate(weights, inputs):. activation = weights[-1]. for i in range(len(weights)-1):. activation += weights[i] * inputs[i]. return activation. # Transfer neuron activation. def transfer(activation):. return 1.0 / (1.0 + exp(-activation)). # Forward propagate input to a network output. def forward_propagate(network, row):. inputs = row. for layer in network:. new_inputs = []. for neuron in layer:. activation = activate(neuron['weights'], inputs). neuron['output'] = transfer(activation). new_inputs.append(neuron['output']). inputs = new_inputs. return inputs. # Calculate the derivative of an neuron output. def transfer_derivative(output):. return output * (1.0 - output). # Backpropagate error and store in neurons. def backward_propagate_error(network, expected):. for i in reversed(range(len(network))):. layer = network[i]. errors = list(). if i != len(network)-1:. for j in range(len(layer)):. error = 0.0. for neuron in network[i + 1]:. error += (neuron['weights'][j] * neuron['delta']). errors.append(error). else:. for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. errors.append(neuron['output'] - expected[j]). for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. neuron['delta'] = errors[j] * transfer_derivative(neuron['output']). # Update network weights with error. def update_weights(network, row, l_rate):. for i in range(len(network)):. inputs = row[:-1]. if i != 0:. inputs = [neuron['output'] for neuron in network[i - 1]]. for neuron in network[i]:. for j in range(len(inputs)):. neuron['weights'][j] -= l_rate * neuron['delta'] * inputs[j]. neuron['weights'][-1] -= l_rate * neuron['delta']. # Train a network for a fixed number of epochs. def train_network(network, train, l_rate, n_epoch, n_outputs):. for epoch in range(n_epoch):. sum_error = 0. for row in train:. outputs = forward_propagate(network, row). expected = [0 for i in range(n_outputs)]. expected[row[-1]] = 1. sum_error += sum([(expected[i]-outputs[i])**2 for i in range(len(expected))]). backward_propagate_error(network, expected). update_weights(network, row, l_rate). print('>epoch=%d, lrate=%.3f, error=%.3f' % (epoch, l_rate, sum_error)). # Test training backprop algorithm. seed(1). dataset = [[2.7810836,2.550537003,0],. [1.465489372,2.362125076,0],. [3.396561688,4.400293529,0],. [1.38807019,1.850220317,0],. [3.06407232,3.005305973,0],. [7.627531214,2.759262235,1],. [5.332441248,2.088626775,1],. [6.922596716,1.77106367,1],. [8.675418651,-0.242068655,1],. [7.673756466,3.508563011,1]]. n_inputs = len(dataset[0]) - 1. n_outputs = len(set([row[-1] for row in dataset])). network = initialize_network(n_inputs, 2, n_outputs). train_network(network, dataset, 0.5, 20, n_outputs). for layer in network:. print(layer). from math import exp. # Calculate neuron activation for an input. def activate(weights, inputs):. activation = weights[-1]. for i in range(len(weights)-1):. activation += weights[i] * inputs[i]. return activation. # Transfer neuron activation. def transfer(activation):. return 1.0 / (1.0 + exp(-activation)). # Forward propagate input to a network output. def forward_propagate(network, row):. inputs = row. for layer in network:. new_inputs = []. for neuron in layer:. activation = activate(neuron['weights'], inputs). neuron['output'] = transfer(activation). new_inputs.append(neuron['output']). inputs = new_inputs. return inputs. # Make a prediction with a network. def predict(network, row):. outputs = forward_propagate(network, row). return outputs.index(max(outputs)). # Test making predictions with the network. dataset = [[2.7810836,2.550537003,0],. [1.465489372,2.362125076,0],. [3.396561688,4.400293529,0],. [1.38807019,1.850220317,0],. [3.06407232,3.005305973,0],. [7.627531214,2.759262235,1],. [5.332441248,2.088626775,1],. [6.922596716,1.77106367,1],. [8.675418651,-0.242068655,1],. [7.673756466,3.508563011,1]]. network = [[{'weights': [-1.482313569067226, 1.8308790073202204, 1.078381922048799]}, {'weights': [0.23244990332399884, 0.3621998343835864, 0.40289821191094327]}],. [{'weights': [2.5001872433501404, 0.7887233511355132, -1.1026649757805829]}, {'weights': [-2.429350576245497, 0.8357651039198697, 1.0699217181280656]}]]. for row in dataset:. prediction = predict(network, row). print('Expected=%d, Got=%d' % (row[-1], prediction)). # Backprop on the Seeds Dataset. from random import seed. from random import randrange. from random import random. from csv import reader. from math import exp. # Load a CSV file. def load_csv(filename):. dataset = list(). with open(filename, 'r') as file:. csv_reader = reader(file). for row in csv_reader:. if not row:. continue. dataset.append(row). return dataset. # Convert string column to float. def str_column_to_float(dataset, column):. for row in dataset:. row[column] = float(row[column].strip()). # Convert string column to integer. def str_column_to_int(dataset, column):. class_values = [row[column] for row in dataset]. unique = set(class_values). lookup = dict(). for i, value in enumerate(unique):. lookup[value] = i. for row in dataset:. row[column] = lookup[row[column]]. return lookup. # Find the min and max values for each column. def dataset_minmax(dataset):. minmax = list(). stats = [[min(column), max(column)] for column in zip(*dataset)]. return stats. # Rescale dataset columns to the range 0-1. def normalize_dataset(dataset, minmax):. for row in dataset:. for i in range(len(row)-1):. row[i] = (row[i] - minmax[i][0]) / (minmax[i][1] - minmax[i][0]). # Split a dataset into k folds. def cross_validation_split(dataset, n_folds):. dataset_split = list(). dataset_copy = list(dataset). fold_size = int(len(dataset) / n_folds). for i in range(n_folds):. fold = list(). while len(fold) < fold_size:. index = randrange(len(dataset_copy)). fold.append(dataset_copy.pop(index)). dataset_split.append(fold). return dataset_split. # Calculate accuracy percentage. def accuracy_metric(actual, predicted):. correct = 0. for i in range(len(actual)):. if actual[i] == predicted[i]:. correct += 1. return correct / float(len(actual)) * 100.0. # Evaluate an algorithm using a cross validation split. def evaluate_algorithm(dataset, algorithm, n_folds, *args):. folds = cross_validation_split(dataset, n_folds). scores = list(). for fold in folds:. train_set = list(folds). train_set.remove(fold). train_set = sum(train_set, []). test_set = list(). for row in fold:. row_copy = list(row). test_set.append(row_copy). row_copy[-1] = None. predicted = algorithm(train_set, test_set, *args). actual = [row[-1] for row in fold]. accuracy = accuracy_metric(actual, predicted). scores.append(accuracy). return scores. # Calculate neuron activation for an input. def activate(weights, inputs):. activation = weights[-1]. for i in range(len(weights)-1):. activation += weights[i] * inputs[i]. return activation. # Transfer neuron activation. def transfer(activation):. return 1.0 / (1.0 + exp(-activation)). # Forward propagate input to a network output. def forward_propagate(network, row):. inputs = row. for layer in network:. new_inputs = []. for neuron in layer:. activation = activate(neuron['weights'], inputs). neuron['output'] = transfer(activation). new_inputs.append(neuron['output']). inputs = new_inputs. return inputs. # Calculate the derivative of an neuron output. def transfer_derivative(output):. return output * (1.0 - output). # Backpropagate error and store in neurons. def backward_propagate_error(network, expected):. for i in reversed(range(len(network))):. layer = network[i]. errors = list(). if i != len(network)-1:. for j in range(len(layer)):. error = 0.0. for neuron in network[i + 1]:. error += (neuron['weights'][j] * neuron['delta']). errors.append(error). else:. for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. errors.append(neuron['output'] - expected[j]). for j in range(len(layer)):. neuron = layer[j]. neuron['delta'] = errors[j] * transfer_derivative(neuron['output']). # Update network weights with error. def update_weights(network, row, l_rate):. for i in range(len(network)):. inputs = row[:-1]. if i != 0:. inputs = [neuron['output'] for neuron in network[i - 1]]. for neuron in network[i]:. for j in range(len(inputs)):. neuron['weights'][j] -= l_rate * neuron['delta'] * inputs[j]. neuron['weights'][-1] -= l_rate * neuron['delta']. # Train a network for a fixed number of epochs. def train_network(network, train, l_rate, n_epoch, n_outputs):. for epoch in range(n_epoch):. for row in train:. outputs = forward_propagate(network, row). expected = [0 for i in range(n_outputs)]. expected[row[-1]] = 1. backward_propagate_error(network, expected). update_weights(network, row, l_rate). # Initialize a network. def initialize_network(n_inputs, n_hidden, n_outputs):. network = list(). hidden_layer = [{'weights':[random() for i in range(n_inputs + 1)]} for i in range(n_hidden)]. network.append(hidden_layer). output_layer = [{'weights':[random() for i in range(n_hidden + 1)]} for i in range(n_outputs)]. network.append(output_layer). return network. # Make a prediction with a network. def predict(network, row):. outputs = forward_propagate(network, row). return outputs.index(max(outputs)). # Backpropagation Algorithm With Stochastic Gradient Descent. def back_propagation(train, test, l_rate, n_epoch, n_hidden):. n_inputs = len(train[0]) - 1. n_outputs = len(set([row[-1] for row in train])). network = initialize_network(n_inputs, n_hidden, n_outputs). train_network(network, train, l_rate, n_epoch, n_outputs). predictions = list(). for row in test:. prediction = predict(network, row). predictions.append(prediction). return(predictions). # Test Backprop on Seeds dataset. seed(1). # load and prepare data. filename = 'seeds_dataset.csv'. dataset = load_csv(filename). for i in range(len(dataset[0])-1):. str_column_to_float(dataset, i). # convert class column to integers. str_column_to_int(dataset, len(dataset[0])-1). # normalize input variables. minmax = dataset_minmax(dataset). normalize_dataset(dataset, minmax). # evaluate algorithm. n_folds = 5. l_rate = 0.3. n_epoch = 500. n_hidden = 5. scores = evaluate_algorithm(dataset, back_propagation, n_folds, l_rate, n_epoch, n_hidden). print('Scores: %s' % scores). print('Mean Accuracy: %.3f%%' % (sum(scores)/float(len(scores))))

Linear regression is a prediction method that is more than 200 years old. Simple linear regression is a great first machine learning algorithm to implement as it requires you to estimate properties from your training dataset, but is simple enough for beginners to understand. In this tutorial, you will discover how to implement the simple linear regression algorithm from scratch in Python. After

In simple linear regression we can use statistics on the training data to estimate the coefficients required by the model to make predictions on new data.. # Calculate the mean value of a list of numbers. def mean(values):. return sum(values) / float(len(values)). # Calculate the variance of a list of numbers. def variance(values, mean):. return sum([(x-mean)**2 for x in values]). # Estimate Mean and Variance. # Calculate the mean value of a list of numbers. def mean(values):. return sum(values) / float(len(values)). # Calculate the variance of a list of numbers. def variance(values, mean):. return sum([(x-mean)**2 for x in values]). # calculate mean and variance. dataset = [[1, 1], [2, 3], [4, 3], [3, 2], [5, 5]]. x = [row[0] for row in dataset]. y = [row[1] for row in dataset]. mean_x, mean_y = mean(x), mean(y). var_x, var_y = variance(x, mean_x), variance(y, mean_y). print('x stats: mean=%.3f variance=%.3f' % (mean_x, var_x)). print('y stats: mean=%.3f variance=%.3f' % (mean_y, var_y)). # Calculate Covariance. # Calculate the mean value of a list of numbers. def mean(values):. return sum(values) / float(len(values)). # Calculate covariance between x and y. def covariance(x, mean_x, y, mean_y):. covar = 0.0. for i in range(len(x)):. covar += (x[i] - mean_x) * (y[i] - mean_y). return covar. # calculate covariance. dataset = [[1, 1], [2, 3], [4, 3], [3, 2], [5, 5]]. x = [row[0] for row in dataset]. y = [row[1] for row in dataset]. mean_x, mean_y = mean(x), mean(y). covar = covariance(x, mean_x, y, mean_y). print('Covariance: %.3f' % (covar)). # Calculate coefficients. def coefficients(dataset):. x = [row[0] for row in dataset]. y = [row[1] for row in dataset]. x_mean, y_mean = mean(x), mean(y). b1 = covariance(x, x_mean, y, y_mean) / variance(x, x_mean). b0 = y_mean - b1 * x_mean. return [b0, b1]. # Calculate Coefficients. # Calculate the mean value of a list of numbers. def mean(values):. return sum(values) / float(len(values)). # Calculate covariance between x and y. def covariance(x, mean_x, y, mean_y):. covar = 0.0. for i in range(len(x)):. covar += (x[i] - mean_x) * (y[i] - mean_y). return covar. # Calculate the variance of a list of numbers. def variance(values, mean):. return sum([(x-mean)**2 for x in values]). # Calculate coefficients. def coefficients(dataset):. x = [row[0] for row in dataset]. y = [row[1] for row in dataset]. x_mean, y_mean = mean(x), mean(y). b1 = covariance(x, x_mean, y, y_mean) / variance(x, x_mean). b0 = y_mean - b1 * x_mean. return [b0, b1]. # calculate coefficients. dataset = [[1, 1], [2, 3], [4, 3], [3, 2], [5, 5]]. b0, b1 = coefficients(dataset). print('Coefficients: B0=%.3f, B1=%.3f' % (b0, b1)). def simple_linear_regression(train, test):. predictions = list(). b0, b1 = coefficients(train). for row in test:. yhat = b0 + b1 * row[0]. predictions.append(yhat). return predictions. # Standalone simple linear regression example. from math import sqrt. # Calculate root mean squared error. def rmse_metric(actual, predicted):. sum_error = 0.0. for i in range(len(actual)):. prediction_error = predicted[i] - actual[i]. sum_error += (prediction_error ** 2). mean_error = sum_error / float(len(actual)). return sqrt(mean_error). # Evaluate regression algorithm on training dataset. def evaluate_algorithm(dataset, algorithm):. test_set = list(). for row in dataset:. row_copy = list(row). row_copy[-1] = None. test_set.append(row_copy). predicted = algorithm(dataset, test_set). print(predicted). actual = [row[-1] for row in dataset]. rmse = rmse_metric(actual, predicted). return rmse. # Calculate the mean value of a list of numbers. def mean(values):. return sum(values) / float(len(values)). # Calculate covariance between x and y. def covariance(x, mean_x, y, mean_y):. covar = 0.0. for i in range(len(x)):. covar += (x[i] - mean_x) * (y[i] - mean_y). return covar. # Calculate the variance of a list of numbers. def variance(values, mean):. return sum([(x-mean)**2 for x in values]). # Calculate coefficients. def coefficients(dataset):. x = [row[0] for row in dataset]. y = [row[1] for row in dataset]. x_mean, y_mean = mean(x), mean(y). b1 = covariance(x, x_mean, y, y_mean) / variance(x, x_mean). b0 = y_mean - b1 * x_mean. return [b0, b1]. # Simple linear regression algorithm. def simple_linear_regression(train, test):. predictions = list(). b0, b1 = coefficients(train). for row in test:. yhat = b0 + b1 * row[0]. predictions.append(yhat). return predictions. # Test simple linear regression. dataset = [[1, 1], [2, 3], [4, 3], [3, 2], [5, 5]]. rmse = evaluate_algorithm(dataset, simple_linear_regression). print('RMSE: %.3f' % (rmse)). # Simple Linear Regression on the Swedish Insurance Dataset. from random import seed. from random import randrange. from csv import reader. from math import sqrt. # Load a CSV file. def load_csv(filename):. dataset = list(). with open(filename, 'r') as file:. csv_reader = reader(file). for row in csv_reader:. if not row:. continue. dataset.append(row). return dataset. # Convert string column to float. def str_column_to_float(dataset, column):. for row in dataset:. row[column] = float(row[column].strip()). # Split a dataset into a train and test set. def train_test_split(dataset, split):. train = list(). train_size = split * len(dataset). dataset_copy = list(dataset). while len(train) < train_size:. index = randrange(len(dataset_copy)). train.append(dataset_copy.pop(index)). return train, dataset_copy. # Calculate root mean squared error. def rmse_metric(actual, predicted):. sum_error = 0.0. for i in range(len(actual)):. prediction_error = predicted[i] - actual[i]. sum_error += (prediction_error ** 2). mean_error = sum_error / float(len(actual)). return sqrt(mean_error). # Evaluate an algorithm using a train/test split. def evaluate_algorithm(dataset, algorithm, split, *args):. train, test = train_test_split(dataset, split). test_set = list(). for row in test:. row_copy = list(row). row_copy[-1] = None. test_set.append(row_copy). predicted = algorithm(train, test_set, *args). actual = [row[-1] for row in test]. rmse = rmse_metric(actual, predicted). return rmse. # Calculate the mean value of a list of numbers. def mean(values):. return sum(values) / float(len(values)). # Calculate covariance between x and y. def covariance(x, mean_x, y, mean_y):. covar = 0.0. for i in range(len(x)):. covar += (x[i] - mean_x) * (y[i] - mean_y). return covar. # Calculate the variance of a list of numbers. def variance(values, mean):. return sum([(x-mean)**2 for x in values]). # Calculate coefficients. def coefficients(dataset):. x = [row[0] for row in dataset]. y = [row[1] for row in dataset]. x_mean, y_mean = mean(x), mean(y). b1 = covariance(x, x_mean, y, y_mean) / variance(x, x_mean). b0 = y_mean - b1 * x_mean. return [b0, b1]. # Simple linear regression algorithm. def simple_linear_regression(train, test):. predictions = list(). b0, b1 = coefficients(train). for row in test:. yhat = b0 + b1 * row[0]. predictions.append(yhat). return predictions. # Simple linear regression on insurance dataset. seed(1). # load and prepare data. filename = 'insurance.csv'. dataset = load_csv(filename). for i in range(len(dataset[0])):. str_column_to_float(dataset, i). # evaluate algorithm. split = 0.6. rmse = evaluate_algorithm(dataset, simple_linear_regression, split). print('RMSE: %.3f' % (rmse)). How to estimate statistics from a training dataset like mean, variance and covariance.

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Web designers often think about the web design process with a focus on technical matters such as wireframes, code, and content management.. Content creation : Now that we have a bigger picture of the site in mind, we can start creating content for the individual pages, always keeping search engine optimization (SEO) in mind to help keep pages focused on a single topic.. It's vital that you have real content to work with for our next stage: Visual elements : With the site architecture and some content in place, we can start working on the visual brand.. The initial stage is all about understanding how you can help your client.In this initial stage, the designer needs to identify the end goal of the website design, usually in close collaboration with the client or other stakeholders.. The client sets out with one goal in mind, but this gradually expands, evolves, or changes altogether during the design process — and the next thing you know, you’re not only designing and building a website, but also a web app, emails, and push notifications.. It helps give web designers a clear idea of the website’s information architecture and explains the relationships between the various pages and content elements.. Wireframes provide a framework for storing the site’s visual design and content elements, and can help identify potential challenges and gaps with the sitemap.. When it comes to content, SEO is only half the battle.Once your website’s framework is in place, you can start with the most important aspect of the site: the written content .. My design process focuses on designing websites around SEO.. Awesome content creation tools Google Docs Dropbox Paper Quip Gather Content Webflow CMS (content management system). But it’s also the stage of the web design process where a good web designer can really shine.. Website testing tools Now it’s time for everyone’s favorite part of the website design process: When everything has been thoroughly tested, and you’re happy with the site, it’s time to launch.

Curious how to create a website with HTML and CSS? You're in the right place! This step-by-step tutorial teaches you to code your own website from scratch.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) defines the structure and contents of a web page – where things go, how they are laid out, and what’s on the page CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) defines the styling/presentation of a web page and the elements on it. Note; when we say “a web page,” what we mean is a single HTML document – a single page that’s part of your website.. – the initial declaration of the document – another declaration; says that what’s to come next is an HTML document written in English – marks the start of the head section; the head section is where all the basic parameters of the page go; most of those are not going to be shown on the screen; they just define what’s going on under the hood – defines what character set is used to write the document; no need to spend too much time on this; just use this declaration as is Hello, world! – the title of the page; this is what people will see in the title bar of their browsers, e.g.:. – marks the start of the body section; this is where all the content of the page goes; it’s the main part of an HTML document; let us emphasize this, this section is where you’re going to be including all the content that’s meant to appear on the page

Hello, world!

– the main header on the page

My first web page.

– a simple paragraph of text – the closing tag of the whole HTML document. With the “normal-text” class defined, we can now assign that class to those specific HTML tags that we want to make 18px in size..
– this is a tag defining that this whole section is the header of the page; this tag has a couple of brothers and sisters in the form of the
tag and
tag
– is a general CSS tag that indicates that what follows is a separate section (aka division ) in the HTML document; using it makes it easier to distinguish individual sections on the page visually. As you can see in the HTML code of the Masthead section, no tag would indicate including an image to the page in any way.. Customize the Other Blocks on the Page As you go through the index.html file, you’ll notice that there’s a lot of different sections already on the page.. They all have roughly the same set of HTML tags – just different CSS classes assigned to them.. To change the color of any text on the page, first find the tag responsible for styling that text, and then go into the stylesheet and modify the corresponding class, or create a new class.. Build a New Page The easiest way to start working on a new page is to duplicate an existing page and use it as a template.

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