Do you ever feel impulsive or aggressive? Do have screaming fits of rage out of proportion to the situation? Do you engage in physical or verbal violence? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you could be suffering from an intermittent explosive disorder—a behavioral disorder that causes explosive episodes of unwarranted anger. Becoming aware of the symptoms, pathophysiology, and the risk factors for the intermittent explosive disorder are essential to managing the condition.
Table of Contents
What is Intermittent Explosive Disorder?
During an episode, individuals lose control of their emotions. Many with an attack and threaten others, animals, or objects. Their violence may pose injury to themselves or property. Episodes last 30 minutes or less. Some have episodes frequently, while others have sporadic episodes. Although the outbursts provide relief from their frustrations at the moment, they feel remorse for their behavior afterward.
Behavioral Symptoms of Intermittent Explosive Disorder
The primary symptoms are behavioral. Before an outburst, mood swings are commonly reported. Irritability, easy frustration, and a strong sense of loss of control proceed the following signs and symptoms of an outburst:
- Assaultingpeople and/or animals
- Actsof self-harm
- Shameand guilt
The behavioral changes in an episode lead to a variety of emotional, social, and cognitive repercussions. Individuals are prone to inflicting damage on the property of others, frequent fighting, difficulty with academics, and road rage.
Physical symptoms of Intermittent Explosive Disorder
While the symptoms are mainly psychological due to impulsive violent behavior, physical symptoms manifest when the autonomic nervous system is activated by the release of adrenaline. Physical symptoms are:
- Chest tightness
- Pressure in head
- Hearing changes
- Muscle tension
Causes of Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Scientists have yet to locate a gene that causes it, so the overall origin is unknown. I
Those with a first degree relative are at risk of developing the condition. Witnessing violence at an early age (i.e. fights between parents and siblings) or experiencing a traumatic event also makes one susceptible. Males are diagnosed more than females.
Brain Abnormalities in Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Neuroscientists from the University of Chicago (2016) confirmed that individuals with it have less white matter volume in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. The superior longitudinal fasciculus is the area of the brain that connects the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, which is crucial for emotion, decision making, and understanding the consequences of actions. White matter abnormalities decrease the connectivity of the brain. When proper signals are miscommunicated, the result is sometimes intermittent explosive behaviors. Variances in the brain’s neurotransmitters (i.e. serotonin), the brain’s chemical messengers, influence behavior in it too.
Disorders Related to Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Symptoms are challenging to pinpoint because of the significant overlap between additional mental health disorders. According to the Cleveland Clinic, 82 percent have an underlying mental condition.
Bipolar disorder is a mental condition causing extreme shifts in mood, energy, and activity levels throughout depressive lows alternating with manic highs. Studies found a subset of intermittent explosive patients with bipolar mania who demonstrated a favorable response to mood stabilizing drugs, suggesting an association with the two conditions (McElroy).
Depression is persistent sadness occurring longer than 2 weeks. Feelings of hopelessness, insomnia, and a loss of interest in activities are also signs of this serious mental disorder.
Substance Abuse, Alcoholism, and Addiction
Substance abuse disorders are a pattern of drug and alcohol use that interferes with daily life—work, relationships, and health. Dependence on substances increases the risk of aggressive behavior. The exact correlation is not understood, but experts hypothesize that individuals resort to drugs and alcohol to cope with their intermittent explosive behaviors.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder causing inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. It also affects impulse control. Those with ADHD tend to have problems regulating emotions, which includes anger. In severe cases, the inability to control anger leads to intermittent explosive disorder.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental illnesses sharing symptoms of restlessness, worry, and over-concern out of proportion to the situation which impedes functioning. This disorder predisposes one to anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety have a 22.9% higher prevalence of anger attacks (Keyes, 2017). Examples include panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder—the latter being particularly prevalent amongst those with
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Oppositional defiant disorder is a childhood behavioral disorder. Children with ODD are defiant, disobedient, and hostile towards authority figures, parents, teachers, and peers. It differs from intermittent explosive disorder in the fact that outbursts may not consist of explosive rages, but patterns of anger, arguing, and vindictiveness instead. It is not rare for a child to have both disorders.
Personality disorders have a strong relationship with t
Intermittent Explosive Disorder in Adolescence
Parenteral involvement is important in adolescent cases of intermittent explosive disorder. Parents must be cautious in their responses, as negative beliefs about parenteral punishments can fuel explosive behaviors. In comparison to adults with the disorder, adolescents are increasingly susceptible to engaging in risky behaviors. They are also at a greater risk for suicide during this sensitive developmental period.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder Diagnosis
Diagnosing this disorder relies on medical history, psychiatric history, and physical and psychological examinations. The purpose of the examination is to rule out physical or mental conditions that mimic the symptoms of an outburst.
Mental health professionals diagnose it using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The following DSM-5 criteria are based on the failure to resist aggressive impulses manifested in one of two ways:
- Verbal aggression such as temper tantrums,arguments, or fights; or physical aggression directed at people, animals, orproperty that occurs twice per week for three or more months. Physicalaggression does not damage property or physically injure people or animals.
- Three behavioral outbursts within a 12 month span resulting in damage or destruction of property and/or physical assault that physically injures people or animals.
Outbursts are out of proportion to the situation, cause distressthat impairs functioning, cannot be premeditated, or explained by anothermental disorder. The diagnostic criteria only applies to patients who are over6 years of age.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder Treatment
Intermittent explosive disorder has no cure. Management of symptoms is achievable through cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmaceutical regimens.
Although there are no medications specifically intended for intermittent explosive disorder, pharmaceutical medications decrease the intensity of outbursts, as well as impulsive behavior and aggressive tendencies.
- Antidepressants—Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that increase the amount of serotonin in the brain.
- Anticonvulsant mood stabilizers—Lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine are prescribed to reduce the incidence of outbursts.
- Antianxiety—Antianxiety medications like benzodiazepines treat secondary anxiety disorders and are best used in acute outbursts.
- Antipsychotics—Antipsychotic drugs target anger and aggression.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the main type of psychotherapy implemented in intermittent explosive disorder treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy works on the principle that unhelpful thinking patterns influence problematic behaviors.
For treating this disorder, a therapist assists patients in identifying triggers for their outbursts. Therapy teaches strategies for an individual to control their anger like relaxation training and cognitive restructuring. A study published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (2008) states that cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced aggression, anger, hostile thinking, and depressive symptoms while improving anger control in those with this
While medications and therapy are essential components to intermittent explosive disorder treatment, coping mechanisms are just as therapeutic. Lifestyle adjustments promote a healthy wellbeing, which has positive benefits on symptoms.
A balanced diet and getting enough sleep at night are great starting points in adopting a healthy lifestyle. Next, incorporating exercise is fundamental. Physical activity triggers the release of endorphins and neurotransmitters that decrease aggressive impulses. Engaging in meditation is perfect for being proactive in intermittent explosive disorder management.
Keyes, K. M., McLaughlin, K. A., Vo, T., Galbraith, T., & Heimberg, R. G. (2016). ANXIOUS AND AGGRESSIVE: THE CO-OCCURRENCE OF IED WITH ANXIETY DISORDERS. Depression and anxiety, 33(2), 101–111. doi:10.1002/da.22428
McCloskey, M. S., Noblett, K. L., Deffenbacher, J. L., Gollan, J. K., & Coccaro, E. F. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for intermittent explosive disorder: A pilot randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 876-886. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.5.876
McElroy SL (1999). Recognition and treatment of DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 12–16.
Medeiros, G.C., Seger, L., Grant, J.E., & Tavares, H. (2018). Major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in intermittent explosive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 262, 209-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.001
University of Chicago Medical Center. (2016, July 6). People with anger disorder have decreased connectivity between regions of the brain: Less integrity and density in the ‘information superhighway’ of the brain can lead to impaired social cognition. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160706175333.htm
Cheyanne is currently studying psychology at North Greenville University. As an avid patient advocate living with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, she is interested in the biological processes that connect physical illness and mental health. In her spare time, she enjoys immersing herself in a good book, creating for her Etsy shop, or writing for her own blog.